The Silent Threat: How High Lead Levels in Drinking Water Affect Mental Health

The Silent Threat: How High Lead Levels in Drinking Water Affect Mental Health

It seems like common sense now that toxins, like lead, in our water are “bad” – but what does that mean? What do these toxins actually do to adversely affect our health?

We came across the study Blood lead levels and major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in U.S. young adults published by the National Institute of Health that highlights the impact of elevated lead levels in young adults 20 – 39 years of age, and we can’t get over how little this topic is discussed when it comes to our health and wellness (read the full study). This study was published nearly 10 years ago now, and yet we continue to experience lead exposure through our infrastructure and tap water.

Anziery, depression and mental health issues because of lead in drinking wtaer

While we often associate lead exposure with physical health problems, it's vital to understand that high lead levels in drinking water can also have a profound impact on mental health. 

The Lead Problem

Lead is a toxic heavy metal that can enter drinking water when it leaches from old plumbing systems, pipes, and fixtures, particularly in older homes. Exposure to lead has been linked to a range of health issues, especially among children, where it can cause developmental delays, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. However, lead's impact on mental health extends to adults as well.

Lead and Mental Health

One of the most staggering results from this study is that people in the highest percentile of blood-lead levels were at 2.3 times increased risk to have a major depressive disorder and 4.9 times increased risk to experience a major panic disorder than those with the lowest lead exposure. Lead exposure affects the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain, which consist of dopamine (the happiness effect) and epinephrine (the energy boost, adrenaline) – a lack of these chemicals in the brain results in an elevated state of depression and/or anxiety.

Studies conducted on lead exposure have typically been studying groups of people with an obviously higher exposure through their occupations – like working in factories or mines where they are knowingly exposed to lead. But now, we’re looking at a connection between young adults in the general public and their exposure to what is accepted as a “safe” or “normal” lead level.

This indicates that no matter the precautions you may take to safeguard your mental health, like daily exercise, eating nutritious food, or meditating – you are still at a greater risk for a depression or anxiety disorder simply by nature of your environment. According to the study, elevated lead levels may trigger people who are predisposed to these conditions and the severity could be impacted as well as their response to treatment. Blood lead levels are generally lower in the United States population than in the 1900s, as we understand lead is dangerous: lead pipes are no longer used in new buildings, we’ve removed lead from paint and gasoline. Clearly though, this is not enough.

Lead Levels in drinking water and mental health


In the study’s limitations, it’s indicated that the measures for current blood lead levels do not take into account the lead that is stored in our bones. We commonly think of calcium being stored in our bones (why we all drank so much milk to build strong bones!), but in reality, all kids of different minerals are stored within our skeletons – which can be good and bad. Bones trap lead, which does help to keep the lead out of our bloodstream temporarily, but as we start to lose bone density due to age (exacerbated by poor diet), that lead has to go somewhere and leeches back into the blood. Lead can be stored in the bone for anywhere from years to decades.

As we’re discovering, it’s so important to stay informed and do your best to protect yourself and your family from toxin exposure for your short-term and long-term health. Many environmental factors feel beyond our control individually, but there are many positive steps you can take to ensure that your home and what you consume are toxin-free.

Protecting Mental Health from Lead Exposure

  1. Testing Water: Regularly test your home's water for lead, especially if you live in an older building or suspect lead pipes or fixtures. If lead is detected, take immediate steps to address the issue.

  2. Use Filtration Systems: Install certified water filtration systems to remove lead and other contaminants. These systems can provide an extra layer of protection.

  3. Lead-Safe Practices: If you have lead pipes or fixtures, follow lead-safe practices, such as running the tap for a few minutes before using the water and avoiding hot water for drinking or cooking.

  4. Seek Medical Advice: If you suspect lead exposure, consult a healthcare professional for a blood lead level test. Early detection and intervention can help mitigate the health effects of lead exposure.


High lead levels in drinking water are a significant public health concern, with far-reaching implications for mental health. As we work towards ensuring that everyone has access to safe and clean drinking water, it's essential to recognize the connection between lead exposure and mental health problems. By addressing this issue proactively through testing, filtration, and medical intervention, we can protect our mental well-being and create healthier communities. Clean water is a basic necessity and a cornerstone of a sound mind and body.


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